No Mercy No Malice

The Algebra of Wealth

Scott Galloway’s four unexpected principles for achieving economic security

The news of the (second) impeachment seems strangely pedestrian after the blowtorch intensity of Reddit vs. The Hedge Funds. The good news is that the hedge funds didn’t conspire with market makers and trading apps to suppress a (warranted) generational revolution. The inevitable Netflix/Hulu/Starz versions will not be so romantic; Reddit mainly inspired a transfer of wealth from one hedge fund to others. It was a pump and dump masquerading as a movement… with many retail investors left holding the bag. There was a conspiracy behind it, though: Society has conspired for decades, through low interest rates, tax policy, and most recently the stimulus, to transfer wealth from the young to the old — the opposite of a healthy society, in which the ballast is a thriving middle class and optimistic youth.

Since 1989, people under the age of 40 have seen their share of the nation’s wealth plummet from 19% to 9%. For the first time in U.S. history, young people are no longer better off (economically) than their parents were at the same age. And, the distribution of this shrinking wealth remains unequal across race and gender. Fading economic opportunity and mobility is a disease, the symptoms of which are shame, frustration, and rage.

But that’s another post. This one is about how to rebel against the conspiracy: the algebra of wealth, or… how to get rich.

Opportunity remains abundant, even as the headwinds of policy make it increasingly difficult for the young to capture their fair share of the spoils (note: this is not sustainable). The less novel path to success does not change, although it is overshadowed by outliers including Charli D’Amelio, President Putin, and Oprah, who illuminate narrower paths. Successful people often unwittingly head fake young people with the humblebrags of “follow your passion” and “don’t think about money.” This is (mostly) bullshit. Achieving economic security requires hard work, talent, and a tremendous amount of focus on… money. Yes, some people’s genius will be a tsunami that overwhelms a lack of focus and discipline. Assume you are not that person.

What is rich?

I know a lot of people who make an extraordinary amount of money, but few people who are rich. Rich is having passive income greater than your burn. People on a path to money focus on their earnings; people on a path to wealth also focus on their burn. Joseph Heller said, “It takes brains not to make money.” (Note: I think he was casting a favorable light on his starving artist friends.) This may be true, but it definitely takes brains to hold onto it (that is, money).

My father receives $48,000 per year from Social Security and his Royal Navy pension (he was a frogman). He spends $40,000, and it’s enough to make him happy. He swims every day, watches a shit-ton of hockey (Leafs fan), and on Fridays goes to The Taco Stand (an actual restaurant in La Jolla) where he orders something called a michelada. (Apparently, it’s medicine delivered in a chilled salt-rimmed glass — he claims his hair is regrowing and that he’s sleeping better. I believe half of that so… I believe it.) Anyway, it’s not your income, but your income-to-expense ratio, that determines if you’re rich.

So, how to increase the odds of reaching economic security (that is, get rich)?

My observation is that there are four factors in the algebra of wealth: focus, stoicism, time, and diversification.

People conflate a lack of focus with a lack of talent. Intelligence and talent are correlated with success, but the strongest signal of future success is your perseverance and resilience: what the books in airport bookstores call “grit.” Unless you are supremely disciplined, your career will have to be something that gives you some enjoyment, but don’t mistake focus for your “passion.” People who tell you to follow your passion are already rich: Follow your talent. The accoutrements that accompany being great at something (relevance, admiration, camaraderie, money) will make you passionate about whatever “it” is.

Focus on putting yourself in a position to be financially successful. Get certified: In a digital world, much of the corporate world decides whether to swipe right or left based on the logos (aspirational universities/firms, vocational certifications, etc.) on your LinkedIn page.

Sector dynamics will trump your talent (I realize how awful that sounds). However, someone of average talent at Google has done better over the last decade than someone great at General Motors. Be thoughtful… any opportunity you have when you are young to choose among different paths is a profound blessing.

Look for the best wave to ride. About 25 years ago, I chose to paddle into the e-commerce wave. My first effort (Red Envelope) failed. Even worse, it failed slowly… over 10 years. I stuck with it and started a firm that helped other firms develop e-commerce strategies (L2) and have owned Amazon stock for 12 years. It took me a while, but the strength of the wave kept me moving, and carried me to the beach. I just read the last sentence and am fairly certain I will never be a truly great writer. Anyway.

Focus on your relationships. Family and friends are essential to long-term happiness, and the most important relationship is your spouse. The most impactful economic decision you make will be who you decide to partner with or, more specifically, who you decide to have kids with. Married people grow their net worth 77% more than single people. Marry the right person, and then invest in that relationship every day. You’ve wagered 50%-plus of your net worth, and value in the marketplace, on that partnership. Don’t keep score, and bring forgiveness, generosity, and engagement. In sum, show up.

Determine what you can and can’t control. You can control your reactions to temptation — a lack of discipline is the antichrist to economic security. Our society of superabundance makes this difficult. Billions of dollars are spent every year on schemes to manipulate our natural impulses into spending more money, consuming more fat, and believing everyone around us is more successful than we are. The upgrade from economy to premium to business to first class to private jet can seem like an investment in yourself — it’s not. The most powerful forward-looking indicator of your financial freedom is not how much you earn, but how much you save.

A specific activity accelerates in a bull market, conflating luck with talent and dopamine with investing. Diabetes, high blood pressure, and sharing a screenshot of your Robinhood gains are maladies of industrial production that exceed our instincts. Trading — distinct from “investing” — can feel like work and productivity. It’s not. It’s gambling, but without free drinks and with worse odds. One study found that over a 12-year period, only 5% of active retail traders made any profit at all. This time around, apps including Robinhood, with its dopamine-triggering confetti, and 24-hour-a-day, volatile crypto trading are the drugs of choice. Most day traders will be fine, and will suffer affordable losses… most. However, for many there are darker outcomes. Young men are especially vulnerable, as they are more risk aggressive. Between 80% and 85% of day traders are men, and 23% of men who gamble become addicted (as opposed to 7% of women). Most of us can gamble without becoming addicted, just as most of us can drink without becoming an alcoholic — but, know the risks.

Stoicism is not just about being stoic in the face of temptation. It means having good character. Succeeding in life is much easier if other people want you to succeed. We have a mental cartoon image of rich people as grasping and cruel. The reality, in my experience, is that wealthy people, in general, demonstrate strength, acumen, and … kindness. Economic security is in the agency of others and you want others to want you to win.

I spent the first 40 years of my life chasing some form of Western relevance so I could register more dopamine surges. It was never enough. More, I want fucking more… now. The pursuit always managed to distract me, and I was unable to get the engines of success and fulfillment firing on all cylinders. This stage of my life was characterized by fits of progress, getting close, but never achieving anything resembling the potential my opportunities warranted. In one moment that all changed for me: When my first son came rotating out of my girlfriend 13 years ago. In sum, shit got real. I was young enough to be selfish, but old enough to recognize it and acknowledge that I needed to change. I decided at that moment (no joke) to bring more focus and discipline into my life.

“Time is the fire in which we burn,” says the poet. It is our most inflexible and valuable commodity, the one thing with which you should not be generous. Squander money, you may earn it back. Squander time, it is gone forever.

Reinvesting, the long term is our ally, the short term our nemesis. The gangster authority on time, Albert Einstein, supposedly remarked that compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world. Yet our brains are not wired to understand this. When I was 26, I thought of being 46 as the distant, irrelevant future. Now that I’ve reached that age (actually I’m 56… ughh), 26 feels as if it was last year. But small investments I made a decade-plus ago have grown into the base of my economic security.

Compounding is not just a financial thing. The most important returns in life come from the compounded effects of our investments over time, whether in our finances, careers, hobbies, or relationships. Change the timescale of your life, and you change your life.

In your life, focus is key. Plan A for financial security is being great at doing something that the market values highly, and leveraging that into income and/or equity in a business. But Plan A squared is investments. And with investments, focus is to be avoided. Diversify and, unless your plan is to be in the finance industry, be sure that your time spent tracking/trading does not distract you from what is/should be your source of income and savings.

Investing over the long term pays out, but there are always dips along the way. Diversification is the kevlar that protects you — with it, bad decisions will still hurt, but they won’t prove fatal. Diversification, in other words, is your bulletproof vest.

A few of my many egregious investing errors:

  1. Red Envelope: I was so emotionally involved (I co-founded the firm in 1997) that I kept putting money into the business and ended up losing 70% of my net worth when the firm declared Chapter 11 in 2008. I had no kevlar, as I was terribly concentrated in one asset.
  2. Netflix: Yes, Netflix. I believed in the company, respected its management, saw its potential, and bought a lot (for a professor) at $12/share. That’s the good news. The bad news is that I sold it six months later at $10/share to capture a tax loss, and never rebought. Today it’s at $558… not that it doesn’t haunt me… every day. Nope, definitely not.

Most of my major mistakes in investing can be distilled down to two things: not diversifying, and trading.

Mistake number one (Red Envelope): Almost fatal. I was 43 and outwardly successful. However, with the birth of my first son, I was feeling more economic anxiety than I had since I was a kid (I lived in a household with a single mother who worked as a secretary). Mistake number two (Netflix): Painful but nowhere near fatal. I had eggs in other baskets (that is, Amazon, Apple, Nike, Oracle). In the end, my kevlar has been not allocating more than 10% of my net worth to any one investment. That doesn’t mean I don’t look for opportunities that offer asymmetric upside — I do. I just don’t ever take off my kevlar. You don’t need to be a hero to get to economic security.

Not your fault

These principles have served me well, especially as I have been more disciplined about following them. But while I wasn’t born into wealth, I did benefit immensely from the circumstance of my birth. My smartest move was to be born a white male in California in the ’60s. An America that loved unremarkable kids presented me with a world-class education (at the time, UCLA had a 60% admissions rate and cost just $400/semester), thrust me into the financial boom of the 1980s, and, through sheer luck, positioned me to catch the internet wave.

Since I set foot on the UCLA campus in the 1980s (feels like just last year) we have told ourselves we remain the Land of Opportunity, and that we were making progress to remedy our historic imbalances. Yet as illustrated by one metric after another, economic security is harder to obtain, not easier, and is becoming less a person’s individual fault and more a result of circumstance… America is becoming less, well, American.

Are we headed for another revolution? I don’t know, but we are due for another righteous movement. What can you do in the face of a system that profits off you becoming overweight, indebted, divided, and addicted? Answer: rebel.

Focus on what matters. Be a Stoic in the face of temptation. Use Time to your advantage. Diversify your investments.

In any economic climate, how do we build economic security, foster love, and find joy? How do we get rich?


Life is so rich,


P.S. Registration for my next Strategy Sprint closes Tuesday. Here’s what will go down over the two-week Sprint: two live lectures with me featuring Q&A (think Reddit AMA but it’s live over video and no one from r/wallstreetbets will be hawking weed stocks), excellent prerecorded video (check out our preview), and a Slack Community of everyone taking the sprint simultaneously. The experience wraps with a final project that you’ll share via Slack, and I’ll review a selection of them in my final live lecture. Get in there!

Prof Marketing @NYUStern · Founder @L2_digital @redenvelope @prophetBrand · Contributor @bloombergtv · Cohost Pivot podcast · Weekly musings

Sign up for Buy/Sell/Hold

By Marker

A newsletter that's 100% business intelligence, and 0% investment advice. Take a look.

By signing up, you will create a Medium account if you don’t already have one. Review our Privacy Policy for more information about our privacy practices.

Check your inbox
Medium sent you an email at to complete your subscription.

Get the Medium app